The name comes from the Greek word read + the privative "a", as in ancient times all the hard stones, which could not be processed, called diamonds.
Probably the first diamonds were discovered in India as there are references to books Economy and Law of the 4th century. The evaluation of diamonds and various precious stones gradually formed the art of Gemmological (Gemmology), while diamonds subjected to tax and customs inspection and was. Also, when the Indians, the diamond had magical properties and thought that through it one could see the different risks and remove them.
Trade and movement of diamonds in the world is estimated to have started the 1st BC century, when it passed from India to China, then in Arabia to Persia and finally in Europe
In the 14th century diamonds traded from India to the world through two pathways. The first, the water, starting from the bay Kampaf then passed through the Persian Gulf, Ethiopia and arrived in Cairo and Alexandria. The second started from an important commercial center Hormuz and then across Persia and Armenia arrived in Asia Minor or in Aleppo, Syria, and from there the diamonds promoted in Venice and Istanbul
Venice in the 13th to 16th century it became the most important center of diamond trafficking, while at the same time show the first small processing manufactories in Flanders. Until the 16th century Bruges was the largest diamond manufacturing center in the world. During the 16th century, it discovered a new sea route to India via the Cape of Good Hope did Lisa hub trafficking diamonds, while the position of Bruges as the major treatment point captured Antwerp, which controlled 40% of world trade.
In the early 18th century, apart from Antwerp major diamond manufacturing and trading center and became Amsterdam and started to develop and London Indeed in Amsterdam in 1822, the first factories were founded with steam treatment machines. Alongside new diamond deposits were discovered in the river Dos Brazil Marinho, which in principle were false, but then it turned out that this was for competitive reasons.
In the mid-19th century they were discovered large diamond deposits in South Africa. The first diamond, 10.73 carat called "Eureka" was accidentally discovered in 1866 on the banks of the Orange River and in 1869 discovered a large diamond, the "star of South Africa" 47.75 carat, which became the main reason the area be filled by "hunters" diamonds. The largest diamond known until today is the Cullinan which was found in 1905 in Tranvaal (N. Africa) and weighed prior to treatment of 3,106 carats (= 612,2 g).
The organization of production and use of new and modern methods began after 1871, when deposits were found in Kimberley (Kimberley) and then appeared the first diamond mining company called De Beers (De Beers). Then, in 1930, Ernest Oppenheimer organized the modern global diamond market, as Monitor has Central Sales Organization based in London.
On 8 Sempemvriou 2008 discovered in Lesotho a 478 carat diamond, which is one of the largest in the world.
DIAMOND 4 CS
Of all the 4Cs, cut has the greatest effect on a diamond’s beauty. In determining the quality of the cut, the grader evaluates the cutter’s skill in the fashioning of the diamond. The more precise the cut, the more captivating the diamond is to the eye. As the light entering the stone from the pavillion is reflected from the back facets of the stone.
Color Gem quality diamonds occur in many hues. In the range from colorless to light yellow or light brown. Colorless diamonds are the rarest. Other natural colors (blue, red, pink for example) are known as "fancy," and their color grading is different than from white colorless diamonds.
Diamonds can have internal characteristics known as inclusions or external characteristics known as blemishes. Diamonds without inclusions or blemishes are rare; however, most characteristics can only be seen with magnification.
The carat is the diamond’s physical weight measured in metric carats. One carat equals 1/5 gram and is subdivided into 100 points. Carat weight is the most objective of the 4Cs.